E 0033 ANGLE, ANKLE

The word "ankle" is of Germanic origin, but

"angle" comes, via Old French, from Latin .

H 0043 ל וֹ ק נְ אַ , ל קָ נְ וּ א

Concept of root : angled, hook

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ל וֹ ק נְ אַ ,
ל קָ נְ וּ א ;
ל קָ עְ ּ *

anqol,

unqal;

* 'aqal

hook;

-

to bend, curve

Related English words

ankle; angle from Latin

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ל וֹ ק נְ אַ ,
ל קָ נְ וּ א ;
ל קָ עְ ּ *

-

anqol,

unqal;

* 'aqal

-

hook ;

-

to bend, curve

. n q l ;

-

' . q l

-

Greek

αγκων ;

-

-

αγκυλος ;

ογκος

ankon ;

-

-

anklos;

onkos

elbow, curve, angle;

curved;

hook, curve

a n k . ;

-

-

a n k (l) ;

(o) n k.

Latin

uncus; ancus

-

uncus; ancus

-

hook; elbow, curve

(u)n k;

a n k;

-

Latin

angulus

angulus

angle, corner

a n g . l

English

ankle

ankle

a n k . l

English

angle

angle

a n g . l

 

 

Proto-Semitic *‛AQAL --- *ANKL- Indo-European

 

 

Loanword. The Hebrew word of this entry, " anqol" is New Hebrew, but just a collateral form of Post Biblical Hebrew " unqal" , with the same meaning : " hook " . As often when a word is not found in the Bible but in other old texts , a similarity with Greek leads to the thesis that the word itself has been loaned from that language .

 

No identical Greek word is found in this case , but scholars indicate as word that has been "borrowed" " αγκυλη , ankűl". The problem is that this "ankűl" has several quite different meanings " articulation, fold, lace, string, knot ". Only in the end it came to be also used to indicate rings and hooks , but as it seems specifically in combined form for the closing of tents .

 

Different meanings. With this information it seems hard to conceive a compelling reason in Post Biblical times to loan this word, change first its sound, from " ankűl" into "unqal" ( or unĕqal ) and then on top of this thoroughly change its meaning into the simple one of "hook " . This is one reason why we would hesitate to cancel this entry from our list. But there is more.

 

Related root. In entry E 0034 (Hebrew 0167) we find the root " ע ק ל , ‛aqal " that covers the concepts of " to curve, bend, twist " and that is clearly related to European words of the actual entry E 0033 (Hebrew 0043). The main difference is that our Biblical "unqal" has a consonant N, that has been introduced in front of the Q. The difference between Aleph , א and Ayin ע is sometimes of secondary importance . A change from Aleph into Ayin may occur when pronunciation or meanings become more emphasized . These facts mean that the word " unqal" and with that Modern or New Hebrew " anqol" are in origin probably related with the Biblical root of " ‛aqal".

 

Nasalization and Schwa. It still is not impossible that a Post Biblical nasalization has taken place under the influence of Greek . But the Hebrew words " anqol" and "unqal" both are written with a "schwa" or dull "e" ( ) after the N-sound as shown in the above table. This indicates a more classic pronunciation of "unĕqal" and "anĕqol", as used with words from Hebrew roots . Clearly there is full reason to maintain this entry in our List of Similarities .

 

In this entry we say that one may consider the mentioned words for "hook" and "angle" of common origin. Secondly that the names for several curved or hooked parts of the human body also have that same origin. So a Greek elbow shows similarity with a Germanic ankle. A Dutch corner is called a "hoek (huk)", thus pronounced like an English"hook", which in Dutch is a "haak" whereas in German a "Haken" stands both for "hook" and "right-angle".

 

The word "elbow", translated into Dutch, becomes an "elleboog" as in German "Ellbogen". And as "boog" or "Bogen" means "curve", these words clear up even more about the relationship felt in old times between the various concepts we talk about. When the Dutch say "houd je haaks" litterally "hold yourself hooky" it means "stand upright " or "keep courage".

 

In Italy the town Ancona lies on a kind of corner in the Adriatic coast. We may blame the Greeks for that name. When sailing to the North from their Magna Grecia that comprised most of southern Italy, they came upon this "elbow" of the Adriatic coast and somehow decided not to colonize any further.

 

 

Note:
  • Greek and Hebrew. Comparing again Greek and Hebrew we see that the concept of " to bend, curve, hook and crook" is expressed by similar roots. An original root "A K" ( in Hebrew Ayin Q ) in Greek has been extended into "AKL" and nasalized into "ANK" and "ANK . L" in order to express different specific meanings . In Hebrew that similar original root has been extended , a.o into "Ayin Q L" and then for a specific meaning nasalized into " ANQ . L" , not as a simple loan, but as a development under Hellenic influence.

 

Note:
  • Hebrew.Hebrew has four related roots that have developed from an original two consonant root "ע ק * Ayin Q , ' a q . " :

     

    with third consonant B, ע ק ב , ‛aqav" ' a q v = heel , crooked . See entry E 0476 (Hebrew 0166)

     

    with third consonant L, ע ק ל , ‛aqal " ' a q l = bend, twist, curve, crooked . This entry and E 0034 (Hebrew 0167)

     

    with third consonant M, ע ק ם , ‛aqam " ' a q m = bend, curve wind, crooked

     

    with third consonant P, ע ק ף , ‛aqaph " ' a q f = encircle, surround

     

    We note Arabic "'aqaf= he crooked, hooked" .

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. The Hebrew root ע ק ל , ‛aqal " * Ayin . Q . L ". with the final L is present in Arabic " ‛aqala = he bent, curved, made crooked". This root ע ק ל is found as well in Syriac that generously also uses another version with S, Samekh, as third consonant ע ק ס, eqis = twisted, bent, crooked". This same root is seen in Aramaic ע ק ס.

     

    Proto-Semitic certainly had the original two consonant root " ע ק*Ayin Q ", and probably as well the three consonant root "*ע ק ל Ayin Q L" and possibly also " *ע ק ש Ayin Q SH " or " *ע ק ס Ayin Q S" .

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. If, as we suppose, all the words of this entry are related to the Semitic root "* 'aqal ", this root that is also found in Arabic and Syriac, may well have been present as such in Proto-Semitic : "ע ק ל , ‛aqal " * Ayin . Q . L ". This root will have been developed out of an earlier "ע ק * Ayin Q ", that must have been present in Proto-Semitic.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Germanic. Sister words of English "ANGLE" , present already in Old English , are found in Old Saxon "angul", Middle Dutch "anghel ( modern Dutch angel)" and in German with its predecessors. Cognates without the final L carry meanings like "sting, prick". In all probability Proto-Germanic had the word"*ANGEL", with the meaning of "hook", that could indicate various hooked instruments, as a fish-hook. Sister words of English "ANKLE" , in Old English "ancleow", are found as "ankel" in Swedish, Danish, Old Frisian and Middle Dutch" and as "enkel" in Dutch. Old High German has "anchul, anchula, enchil, anchila". It is therefore highly probable that Proto-Germanic also had "*ANKEL" with the meaning of "ankle".

     

    One must note that in Germanic languages there are also words without the final L, that are used to indicate "hip" , such as Old High German "ancha" and "enka", but with some mix-up these were also used to say "ankle" or "thigh". One of the words made its way into Italian as "anca = hip". The Frisians said "hancke, hencke", Middle Dutch was "hanke" and the Franks also had put an H in front of it in "hanca" that led to French "hanche" with the same meaning. Modern German still has "Hanke", a specialized word for the hip of a horse. The dialect of Austrian Tirol uses "Henkel" for "thigh", which in German is a somewhat different word: "Schenkel", just like Dutch "schenkel". Not everything follows simple straight lines !

 

Note:
  • Indo-European. Old Indian has important related words in "ankágh = hook, curve" and ánkas- = bend, curve". "ankati = to bend, curve, incline". Though in some forms the "N" disppears, the root probably was "A NK-". Further comparison shows for "finger": "anguligh, angurigh, interestingly with "L" or "R".

     

    Avestan shows two forms for "hook" : anku-, aka-".

     

    Armenian "ankiun, angiun = corner".

     

    Russian has the word " у г о л, ugol = angle, corner", that probably is related , be it not nasalized like in the other languages and yet with a final "L" as in Latin "angulus".

     

    Old Church Slavic had "okotj = hook".

     

    For Indo-European the probable basic forms are both " A NK- and "A NK L-".

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 21/12/2012 at 12.17.57