E 0034 ANGLE

The word "angle" comes, via Old French, from Latin

H 0167 ל ק ע

Concept of root: crooked

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ל ק ע ,

ם ק ע

ש ק ע

‛aqal, ‛aqam ;

‛uqal;

‛aqash

to bend, curve, twist;

curved, pervert;

to twist, pervert

Related English words

angle

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ל ק ע,

ם ק ע;

ל ק ע

;

ש קע;

;

* ע ק

;

‛aqal, ‛aqam;

‛uqal

-

‛aqash

-

*‛aq

-

to bend, curve, twist;

twisted, pervert;

to twist, pervert;

to bend, curve ;

‛a q l, ‛a q m;

-

‛a q l ;

-

‛a q sh ;

-

* ‛a q

-

Greek

αίκης;

αεικης

aiks; aeiks

improper; incorrect and mean behaviour

ai k

Latin

angulus

angulus

corner

a ng

English

angle

angle

a ng

 

 

Proto-Semitic *‛AQAL < *‛AQ --- *ANKL < *ANK- < *AK- Indo-European

 

 

This entry is related to number E 0033 (Hebrew 0043 ).The Hebrew words ׳aqal, ׳aqam and ׳aqash all indicate also "being crooked, perverted" the figurative way.

 

Note:
  • Greek. The last part, "-s", is a suffix and not part of the root. The Greek words aίks and aeiks, that have a certain similarity with the others of this entry, do not express exactly the same meanings, but a possibly related message. It is quite uncertain if they can be considered of the same origin, seen in a Indo-European "*AK".

 

Note:
  • Hebrew. The existence of three roots of three consonants with the same meaning, ׳aqal, ׳aqas and ׳aqash, means that a basic message probably was already carried by the two consonants they have in common : ׳a and q, Ayin and Qoph.

     

    Important is that , as shown in entry E 0033 (Hebrew 0043), in both Semitic and Indo-European also a nasalization has taken place, that is an "N" has been introduced in front opf the Q-sound respectively K-sound.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. The Hebrew root with the final L is present in Arabic " ‛aqala = he bent, curved, made crooked" as well. This root ע ק ל is found as well in Syriac that generously also uses another version with S, Samekh, as third consonant ע ק ס, eqis = twisted, bent, crooked". This same root is seen in Aramaic ע ק ס.

     

    Proto-Semitic certainly had the original two consonant root "* ע ק*Ayin Q ", and probably as well the three consonant root "*ע ק ל Ayin Q L" and then possibly also " *ע ק ש Ayin Q SH " or " *ע ק ס Ayin Q S" .

 

Note:
  • Latin "angulus" has the littteral meaning of something crooked or bent, like English "angle". It is in all probability based on the same root, but with a nasalization (inserting an N) as seen in entry E 0033 (Hebrew 0043) . "Angulus" may just be a diminutive of an older word "angus" that is also found in Armenian and other Indo-European languages.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Germanic. Sister words of English "ANGLE" , present already in Old English , are found in Old Saxon "angul", Middle Dutch "anghel ( modern Dutch angel)" and in German with its predecessors. Cognates without the final L carry meanings like "sting, prick". In all probability Proto-Germanic had the word"*ANGEL", with the meaning of "hook", that could indicate various hooked instruments, as a fish-hook. Sister words of English "ANKLE" , in Old English "ancleow", are found as "ankel" in Swedish, Danish, Old Frisian and Middle Dutch" and as "enkel" in Dutch. Old High German has "anchul, anchula, enchil, anchila". It is therefore highly probable that Proto-Germanic also had "*ANKEL" with the meaning of "ankle".

     

    One must note that in Germanic languages there are also words without the final L, that are used to indicate "hip" , such as Old High German "ancha" and "enka", but with some mix-up these were also used to say "ankle" or "thigh". One of the words made its way into Italian as "anca = hip". The Frisians said "hancke, hencke", Middle Dutch was "hanke" and the Franks also had put an H in front of it in "hanca" that led to French "hanche" with the same meaning. Modern German still has "Hanke", a specialized word for the hip of a horse. The dialect of Austrian Tirol uses "Henkel" for "thigh", which in German is a somewhat different word: "Schenkel", just like Dutch "schenkel". Not everything follows simple straight lines !

 

Note:
  • Indo-European

     

    Old Indian has important related words in "ankágh = hook, curve" and ánkas- = bend, curve". "ankati = to bend, curve, incline". Though in some forms the "N" disppears, the root probably was "A NK-". Further comparison shows for "finger": "anguligh, angurigh", interestingly with "L" or "R".

     

    Avestan shows two forms for "hook" : "anku-, aka-".

     

    Armenian "ankiun, angiun = corner".

     

    Russian has the word " у г о л, ugol = angle, corner", that probably is related , be it not nasalized like in the other languages and yet with a final "L" as in Latin "angulus". Old Church Slavic had "okotj = hook".

     

    For Indo-European the probable basic forms are both "* A NKL-" and the earlier "*A NK-". Still earlier there must have been a not yet nasalized "*A K-".

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 22/12/2012 at 16.26.40