E 0476 ICHNITE

The word "ichnite" is based on Greek "ichnos".

H 0166 ב ק ע

Concept of root : heel

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ב ק ע

aqev

heel

Related English words

ichnite

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ב ק ע

aqev

heel, footprint

׳a q . b ;

< * ‛a q

Greek

ιχνoς,

ikhnos

footprint, trace , sole

i kh n <

*i kh

English

ichnite

fossilized footprint

i ch n

German

Hacke

hacke

heel

h . k

Dutch

hak

hak

heel

h . k

 

 

Proto-Semitic *‛AQEB < *‛AQ- --- *HAKKE Proto-Germanic

 

 

The three versions of what originally should have been one root can easily be seen as related between the Germanic H + vowel A and the Hebrew Ayin plus vowel A. But in the Greek root there is no indication of a disappeared H. Its etymology has not been explained . "Ikhnos" consists of a suffix "-nos" and the first part "IKH-" that is to be compared with Germanic "HAK-".

 

Besides this there remains the third consonant B, only present in Hebrew. This limited similarity may have a common origin as basis, but a question mark remains.

 

Yet we see a quite interesting aspect if we follow some existing etymological reasonings. The German word Hacke ( Dutch "hak" ) , originally not present in High German , is considered related with the English word " hook " ( German also " Haken "). This view is quite understandable. But also in Hebrew we have various words that begin with the couple " Ayin. Qoph" , without the third consonant B ( pronounced V) of this entry and meaning " hooked, crooked ". Instead of a third consonant B we find either an L , an M or a SH in third position ! The supposition of common origin with the Germanic words is nicely reinforced by these facts .

 

The three Hebrew roots are : "ע ק ב, Ayin Qoph Bet, ‛aqov = crooked, insidious, steep ", "ע ק ם, Ayin Qoph Bet, ‛aqam = to bend, curve, wind" and "ע ק ש, Ayin Qoph Bet, ‛aqash = to twist, make crooked, pervert". These roots are seen in Entry E 0034 (Hebrew 0167 ). Of the three, "‛aqam" is not present in the written text of the Bible, but existed in Aramaic, Syriac and Arabic, and must be old. Hebrew uses it in Post Biblical texts.

 

Note:
  • Dutch. The Dutch word is also used as "Hacke" in Northern Germany, the territory of Low German. As is known, originally Dutch and Low-German were nearly identical. Then High-German has become the official language of Germany, due more to the influence of writers than to political factors. In fact the Prussians, who unified Germany , spoke Low-German. But they never tried to impose this language on the unified nation.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. Proto-Semitic is seen as having already the same root found in Hebrew. It is seen in many Semitic languages. Aramaic has ע ק ב א, ‛iqew'" and Syriac shows a very similar ע ק ב ה, ‛eqew". Ugaritic has for "heel" the same root and so does Akkadian with "iqbu = heel". Arabic, besides "‛aqib = heel" also shows "‛iqbah = footprint", a meaning also seen in Hebrew, be it for the basic word. Proto-Semitic probably already had the root "*ע ק ב".

     

    The pronunciation of a final " V " instead of final " B " is seen in Hebrew and in the North West and probably had not developed in Proto-Semitic.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Germanic. It is quite possible that a word and root, used in Proto-Germanic, loses territory, through which their use becomes geographically limited as is the case with the Low German, Dutch and Frisian "hakke" etc. of this entry. Unless a different origin will be found for these words, a hypothesis of Proto-Germanic "*H A KK E" can be considered. The alternative word, to which "HAKKE" then lost its ground, is "HEEL" with its many cognates.

 

Note:
  • Indo-European. It is possible that Greek "ikhnos" has a common origin with Germanic "hakke", but this is hard to establish with certainty. Therefore we do not venture a hypothesis for Indo-European different from Proto-Germanic.

 

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 22/01/2013 at 15.52.26