E 0392ááááááááá GRAVE , GRAFAN

The words "grave "and Old English " grafan " are of áGermanic origin .

H 0438áááááááá ר פ ח

Concept of root : to dig

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ר פ ח

ghaphar

to dig

Related English words

grave

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ר פ ח

ghaphar

to dig

gh . ph . r

English

grave

grave

g r . v

Old English

grafan

to dig

g r . f

German

graben

graben

to dig

g r . b

Dutch

graven;

graf

ghraven;

ghraf

to dig;

grave

gh r . v;

gh r . f

 

 

Proto-Semitic *GHAP(H)AR --- *GRĀF- Proto-Germanic < *GRĀP- Indo-European

 

 

á

This entry is to be seen in relation with the numbers E 0386 (Hebrew 0505) "כ ר ה, karÓ = to excavate, hollow out" and E 0393 (Hebrew 0788) "ק ו ר, qor = to excavate". The comparison teaches that the initial guttural of these roots in Hebrew has three versions, the Q , the K and the GH !

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. This Hebrew root is seen as well in Aramaic and Syriac "ח פ ר, ghaphar" . Arabic has "ghafara = he dug" and Akkadian had "ghaparu = to dig". This root was probably used in Proto-Semitic "*ח פ ר, GH P R".

     

    It is unclear but possible that the change in pronunciation of the middle consonant " P " into " PH ", as seen in Hebrew and Aramaic, has begun in Proto-Semitic, as one finds the " PH = F " also already used in Arabic. But in Akkadian the " P " is unchanged!

 

Note:
  • Metethesis, Germanic and Hebrew With an identical meaning we lack here an identical sequence of the three consonants that form the roots. That makes us suppose a metathesis may have taken place somewhere along the road. We know that this kind of phenomenon is not at all too rare, especially in Germanic roots with an R in it. But the particular thing is that we find here an a bit metathesis-like phenomenon also internally in Hebrew , when comparing this entry with E 0393 (Hebrew 0788) !

 

Note:
  • Hebrew and English. English " grave " is very typically that what results from the action of the verb " to dig " . In Old English we see already the same use of this root for the specific noun , " graef ". In German and Dutch there are the verbs " graben", and " graven " still commonly used for "to dig ".

 

Note:
  • Proto-Germanic. In older languages we find Old Saxon, Gothic and Old High German with "graban", Old English "grafan", Old Norse "grafa", Old North Franconian "gravan" and Middle Dutch "graven". For the noun "grave" there is Old Saxon and Middle Dutch "graf", Old English "græf", Old High German "grab" and Old Norse "grof". Proto-Germanic probably had "*GR Ā V-" for some forms and and "*GR Ā F-" for others.

 

Note:
  • Indo-European. There are some useful indications from outside Germanic, like a Latvian "grebt = to hollow out" and an Old Church Slavonic "greti = to dig" and Old Slavic "greba = I dig". Indo-European may have had a form "*GR Ā P-", though also "*GR Ā B-" remains possible.

 

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 24/01/2013 at 11.19.53