E 0270          DRYCCEAN

The Old Englishverb "dryccean" is of Germanic origin .

H 0313            ח ח ד

Concept of root : driving push

Hebrew word


English meanings

ח ח ד


to push, drive

Related English words

Old English drycc(e)an

Comparison between European words and Hebrew




English meanings

Similarity in roots


ח ח ד


to push, drive

d . gh . gh

Old English


to push hard

d r . c

Middle Dutch

ducken, drucken



to push hard

d . k;

d r . k




to push hard, press

d r . k



Proto-Semitic *DAGH, *DUGH --- *DUKK- Proto-Germanic



This Hebrewthree consonant root should be the extended version of an original two-consonant-root "*D GH", as is common in Hebrew when we find a root in which the second and third consonant are the same. Besides, there are several other roots that have D and GH with another consonant in the third position and related meanings. But "D GH GH" has disappeared from modern Hebrew, leaving free hunt to its younger sisters.


  • Proto-Germanic. In most words an R has been introduced, that is not seen in Hebrew. But in the first Middle Dutch verb this R had not yet arrived. Obviously the inserting of the R is a development either due to the need for a better diversification from "dokken" , the verb we saw in entry GD 1043 (Hebrew 0312), or just an expression of the pleasure of speaking.


    The Germanic verbs of this entry that have a doubled-sound, "ck" or "kk", are sometimes considered an intensive form of a group with the message of "to oppress, force (to do), threaten". This sounds nice if we see Old Icelandic and Old Norse "thruga" ( Norwegian "truge, true") with such meanings. But semantically this would not be a reasonable sequence and we must abandon that track . There are verbs that have "DR O/U W" and that also mean "to threaten".


    Middle Dutch "ducken" besides the later "drucken" gives an indication that the consonant "R" has been inserted after the original initial "D". With that we do not know when this happened, but the widespread use of "DR" makes us believe that with Proto-Germanic this process may have started. That means also that both versions have lived together for a long time, at least in part of the territory.


    The North Germanic "T" as also seen in Swedish "trycka" has developed out of the older "TH" with the sound as in "thin" that probably came from an earlier "D" after the introduction of the "R". For the consonant after the vowel the only indication is a double "K"-sound and there is no reason to change that, though it may have been relatively near to a double "G", as can be seen in for example Finnish pronunciation. Finnish is unrelated as such to North Germanic but both lived together for centuries.


    The vowel in between varies mostly from "Y" (a sound between a long "I" and "Ü" that is also used in South German dialect) and "Ü". An exception is Dutch that, like Middle Dutch, has a short "U", rather like in English "luck". Proto-Germanic presumably had "*D U KK-" and already as well "*DR Ü K-", with the "U" pronounced "Ü".


  • Proto-Semitic. For this root, one of various that start with "D GH" and have related messages, we have no specific indication that would allow a hypothesis for Proto-Semitic. With its characteristic doubling of the second consonant it may have developed in Hebrew only. Anyhow the original two consonant probably was present in Proto-Semitic : "*ד ח , D GH".


    This two consonant combination may have made use of a vowel " O " or " U " as so often, or of a vowel " A ".


  • Indo-European. Once more we have to limit our comparison to Proto-Germanic, because we lack useful information from other language groups. We do not believe, as some scholars propose, that the Old English verb "drycc(e)an" comes from an Indo-European root with the meaning "to cut", as found in Welsh "trychu" = " to cut". Nor should it be seen as linked to Lithuanian "trūkti = to break".





Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 15/10/2012 at 11.34.03