GR 1221          ORNÜMI

H 0215                 ר ר ו ע , ר י ע ה

Concept of root : to awaken

Hebrew word


English meanings

ר ר ו ע  , ר י ע ה

‛orer, he‛ir

to make get up, awaken


Related English words


Comparison between European words and Hebrew




English meanings

Similarity in roots


ר ר ו ע

ר י ע ה



make get up,


‛o r






to awake, get up, awaken

o r n




to get up, come up

o r



Proto-Semitic *‛OR --- *OR Indo-European




One can see a link between the concepts of "to awaken" and the usually following action of "to get up". In German and Dutch the verbs "aufstehen" and "opstaan" frequently have the pregnant use of "to get up after waking up".


The first of these two Hebrew words has doubled the original root. This phenomenon is found in more languages. It is not frequent, but not too seldom either in Hebrew. In Malay it is used the express the plural, but also other characteristics. "Alang" is "grass", but "Alang alang" is the high grass growing in the wild and among which predators like tigers can make their approach to preys.


A particular aspect of the similarity in this entry is that both tongues use the same vowel, the " O ". The original root is still seen as " E + R". In reality the origin should be defined as having been " Aleph + R", just as it would be in Hebrew. Then the choice of the vowel for pronunciation has to be made, and in comparing the words of this entry with the preceding couple, that vowel shows to be either an" E " or an " O " . But this way of analizing roots is not customary for Indo European languages.


Remains anyhow the difference that Hebrew, instead of an Aleph, applies an Ayin, that is a more audible way of starting a vowel.



  • Greek. We find here a very interesting example of how verbs in Greek are shaped. As known, it is always the first person singular that is given as "the verb" in Latin and Greek. The reason for that choice does not lie in the felt importance of " I " or " ME ", but in the fact that this form makes it easier to detect the root of a verb and consequently allows us to deduct how the other verbal forms should be.


    This shaping of verbal forms quite normally takes places by adding a suffix to the root. And the suffix quite normally is a shortened form of a personal pronoun. For the first person in Greek people mostly haven chosen the nominative "ego", but sometimes the accusative "mi". In this entry we find both forms. "Orino" has the "o" from "ego." "Ornumi" has "mi".


    These words have more meanings than just "to awaken", but the same goes for the Hebrew root.


  • Greek and Hebrew. The third consonant " N " in Greek is an instrument for the construction of an extended root .


  • Latin. This verb is also used to indicate the rising of the sun. This specific use has created the words for "Orient". Then "orior" also says "I am born; I descend (from)". There exists an opinion that, perhaps, the initial "O" is a prefix. The idea is based on the fact that an initial vowel lacks in Old Indian "rrnoti- rrnvati = to get up". But here in Old Indian the opening " R " is used as a vowel and this may be a specific development. Indeed Greek scholars do not follow that kind of theory for their language and see an initial vowel.


  • Proto-Semitic. This root is considered an extension by doubling of the second consonant R, of the root seen in entry E 0049A ( Hebrew 0213 ) and we refer to our note there, that says that that root is found in Aramaic, Syriac and Ugaritic and quite possibly was already used in Proto-Semitic: (Hebrew 0213) "* ע ו ר Ayin W R ".


  • Indo-European.


    Old Indian uses an initial "R" as vowel. We express this as a double "RR": "rrnóti, rrnváti = to get up, rise, to get into motion". One notes that the original "W"-sound is used either as a vowel (here an Ó) or as a consonant ( here in VÁ). And indeed in Sanscrit the concepts of "upward, raised, rising" are expressed with words starting with "Û R-".


    Avestan. The brief root "A R-" means "to get moving", but we have no documentation that it also said "to rise, to get up", though this may well be the case.


    Armenian "y-arnem = I get up, rise". As in Greek, a consonant "N" has been added.



    Indo-European may have used either "*Ā R-" o more probably "*Ō R-" or even both.





Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 05/10/2012 at 16.31.06