GR 1218          ONEIDOS

H 0159            ה נ ע

Concept of root : debasing

Hebrew word


English meanings

ה נ ע


oppress, humiliate

Related English words


Comparison between European words and Hebrew




English meanings

Similarity in roots


ה נ ע


oppress, humiliate

i n e




abuse, humiliation

o n e



Proto-Semitic *‛ANA , *‛0NE' --- *ONID Indo-European



This entry is to be seen together with the entries GR 1123 (Hebrew 0156), E 0040 (Hebrew 0157) and more especially with. E 0632 (Hebrew 0158). After those three entries , that all are about how one behaves in front of another person, here, instead of trying to explain himself or to please the other person, the subject has decided to humiliate himself in front of that person, ( = ‛anà the standard form of the verb) or on the contrary that person decides to humiliate, abuse and oppress him ( = ‛innà, the intensive form of the verb).



  • Greek. There is also the word "αινός , ainos", expressing "terrible, atrocious", and probably akin to "oneidos". The last part of "oneid-os" is a suffix and not to be considered as part of the root that is akin to Hebrew.


    We can not agree to the opinion of those who see as root of "oneidos " only "*neid". The similarity with Hebrew is an indication that the initial vowel may have to be considered as part of the root. "Neid" as such is not found in Greek.


  • Proto-Semitic. This root is found in several Semitic languages, with meanings related to those of this entry. We refer to Aramaic "‛anń = he oppressed", Syriac "'et‛anń = he humbled himself", Arabic "‛anà = to be low, submissive". Akkadian "enū= to frustrate" is somewhat further off. The root "*ע נ ה, Ayin N + accentuated vowel", probably was already used as such in Proto-Semitic.


  • Indo-European.


    Old Indian is based on the two consonant combination "N D", doubles the initial "N" in a number of forms and does not use an initial vowel as Greek does. We see "níndati, pf. ninidúh = to blame, revile" and the nouns "níd-, nídā, nindā = blame".


    Avestan does not use an opening vowel and has a diphthong" between the consonants "N D", in "naēd = to insult, outrage".


    Proto-Germanic. With " N T" instead of "N D" as two-consonant combination, "Proto-Germanic has a hypothesis of "*naitian", that rather should be "*N Ā T-", based on several words. Gothic "*ga-naitjan = to treat shamefully", the principal inspiration for the mentioned hypothesis, has a very common confirming prefix "ga_". Old English "næting = blaming". The "T" instead of "D" may be a specific Germanic development. The change of vowel seems to be Germanic as well.


    Baltic has a hypothesis of "*N D-", with uncertainty about the vowel and proposals of "AI" "EI" and " ī ", Latvian uses the " ī " in nîdu = blame, insult".



    Indo-European probably used a form "*O N I D-" and already introduced a form without opening vowel: "*N I D-". In this hypothesis we have let ourselves be guided in part by the similarity with Semitic.





Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 01/10/2012 at 16.48.12