E 0584 MIDDLE

The word " middle " is of Germanic origin .

H 0607 ע צ מ

Concept of root : middle

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ע צ מ

mits‛

to average,

be in the middle, divide

Related English words

mid-, middle

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ע צ מ

mits‛

to average, be in the middle, divide

m . ts (‛).

Greek

μεσος

mesos

(in the) middle

m . s

*m . th

Latin

medius

medius

(in the)

middle

m . d

English

middle

middle

m . d (l)

German

Mitte , mitten

mitte, mittel

middle

m . t;

m . t (n)

Middle Dutch

mid,

middel, midden

middel, midden

(in the) middle

m . d (l)

m . d (n)

 

 

Proto-Semitic *MITS‛A --- *MĬD- Proto-Germanic < *MĒD- Indo-European

 

 

The Hebrew word "mits’" as , perhaps , an intensive form of an earlier verb must be based on a root "*M TS" meaning just "middle". The difference between Greek S and Hebrew TS might daringly be seen as "balanced" by that with Germanic D. In fact Greek scholars suppose an original root "M TH".

 

 

Note:
  • Greek "mesos" is an adjective used to express a number of connotations with "middle", such as : "central, in the middle, half" as well as many figurative messages, such as that of moral equidistance. Greek scholars see an older "*meth-".

 

Note:
  • Latin "medius" is considered as a development of "*medhios". Perhaps this supposition has been influenced by an Old Indian word "madhyah" and an Avesti word "maidya". Whatever be true of this, all these words are related Indo-European words.

 

Note:
  • Hebrew.This word is a rather isolated one. But also as such it is sufficiently clear to establish the common origin of the roots in this entry. And it has Semitic cognates.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. This root is a.o. present in Aramaic and Syriac " מ צ ע , mits‛ = was in the middle" and " מ צ ע א, mitse‛ = middle". Probably his root was used in Proto-Semitic "* מ צ ע , M TS Ayin".

 

Note:
  • Proto-Germanic. With a few exceptions as Old Franconian and Old Danish, using a vowel "E", Germanic languages generally have an initial "MI-". This is followed by a dental "D", often "DD", with the exception of High German and it predecessors, that have "MITT-". Gothic had a hypothetical "miduma= middle" as well as a hypothetical "*midjis = middle". Also in Nordic languages we find this "J" in for example Danish "midje" and Old Norse "midhja", but this "J" is part of the suffix, not of the root and should not be considered for Proto-Germanic as some scholars do. Proto-Germanic probably had "*M I D" and/or "*M I DD-".

 

Note:
  • Indo-European. There is a hypothesis of "*medhy-". The final " Y " may have been used but should not be considered as part of the root or basic form. The central "DH" would be in reality just a way of pronouncing what basically is a " D ". So the form should be "*M Ē D-".

     

    Old Indian "madhyah = middle (adj)".

     

    Avestan "maidhya- = middle (adj)" and "madhema- = middle (n)". One notes that Gothic "miduma " with the same meaning is not far off.

     

    Armenian "mē = middle"

     

    Slavic has a hypothesis "*medjū-, *medjā-", but this is based on Old Church Slavonic for "road" or originally "border, limit", also found in Russian "mezja", and here similarity in meaning lacks. Nearer Old Bulgarian "mezjdu = between", like Old Russian "mezji", followed by Russian "между, mezjdu = amid, amidst, between". A comparable development is found in Greek "meta = between", besides other meanings.

 

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 08/11/2012 at 15.54.33