E 0207          CRINKLE

The word " choir " is, via Old French and Latin, of Greek origin .

The word " crinkle " is of Germanic origin .

H 0508           ר כ ר כ

Concept of root : roundness of movement or shape

Hebrew word


English meanings

ר כ ר כ


to dance around, in circles

Related English words

choir, crinkle

Comparison between European words and Hebrew




English meanings

Similarity in roots


ר כ ר כ


to dance around,

in circles

k . r (k r)




organized dance

kh . r


kring ;






k r . (ng);

k r . (nk)

Old Icelandic




k r . (ng r)




k r . (nk)



Hebrew "KIRKÈR < Proto-Semitic *KAR --- *KRĬG- Indo-European



This entry is related to number E 0174 (Hebrew 0484). On the basis of a two-consonant root : " K R ", we saw in E 0174 (Hebrew 0484) a doubling of the first consonant " K ", leading to " K K R " . Now in this entry E 0207 (Hebrew 0508) we seen the doubling of the combination " K R ", resulting in " K R K R " . These are two of the many ways in which roots in Hebrew, but also in other languages, do develop.


So we see in this entry a basic unit "K R", elaborated in various ways by different languages, but remaining close in the development of meanings . We note that in popular and organized dancing events in old times, but frequently also in more modern folk-dance, figures in circles are very common. The use of a designated limited space for the dances is certainly a specific cause or collaborating factor of such customs. It is therefore understandable that we find a common root in words that stand for dancing around, organized dancing and circular figures.



  • Hebrew shows us frequently how roots have developed from having two consonants into having three consonants. Two of the most obvious ways, that usually do not lead to any great changes in meaning of the root, together with a third less common one, are as follows:
    1. Root "X Y" becomes root "X Y Y". Example: root "K R" becomes root "K R R" .
    2. Root "X Y" becomes root "X Y X Y". Example: root "K R" becomes root "K R K R".
    3. Root "X Y" becomes root "X X Y" . Example: root "K R" becomes root "K K R".


    We see the verb "KiRKeR" (the consonants emphasized) that also expresses an intensified form of action by the choice of the vowels I and E.


    In Modern Hebrew the word "kirker" is more used to indicate a movement like that of individual turning in pirouettes. Perhaps a sign of development of custom.


    This development may have been influenced by the tendency to shape a noun by adding a suffix.


  • Proto-Semitic . We refer to entry E 0174 (Hebrew 0484). Besides, Hebrew has a root "K R R " , developed out of an older "*K . R", with various meanings regarding roundness and moving. This root gives Arabic "kura = sphere", Ethiopian "kwarkwara = he rolled" and idem "makarkar = to turn a mill". It may well have been present in Proto-Semitic, certainly with one and possibly also already with two R's: "*כ ר , K R" and possibly "*כ ר ר , K R R".


  • Germanic. Dutch "kring" has a sisterword in German "Kringel", a diminutive of Middle High German "krinc", which is identical in sound and meaning to Middle Dutch "crinc" and Middle Low German "krink".


    The English word "crinkle" usually is not given as a diminutive, but it seems obvious that it is. Like its Germanic sisters it has given birth to verbs, like "to crinkle". Also the other words with L mentioned in this entry are diminutives.


    Many other words have been shaped on the same basis, all having roundness of shape or movement in their message.


    Fundamental is the build-up of the basic Germanic word , supposed to have been "*kringa". The "A" is a suffix for the forming of a noun. The central vowel " I " alternates with " O " or even " A " in other words. Clearly the basic meaning of roundness is not carried by those vowels. They serve to pronounce as well as to variate or refine meanings. The N is the result of a nasalization, a very common phenomenon in Germanic languages, though it is not yet fully clear why , according to which rules and in what specific circumstances it occurs . It is quite possible that in this respect there are no rules but pleasure and habit in speaking. Thus remains the root "K R K " with the spelling variations "K R C", "C R C", "K R G" etcetera. And, in Old Icelandic "K R K R", just as found in Hebrew.


    The nasalization (introducing the N and producing the NG-sound) is not present in all Germanic words that have been formed on the basis of the old "*K R"-combination that says "roundness in movement or shape". In Old Norse we find the word "hrukka" without nasalization, in Norwegian developed into "skrukk" for "wrinkle", together with Middle Low German "krunke" and Dutch "kronkel (diminutive)", with Nordic without nasalization.


  • Proto-Germanic . As can already be deducted from our Note on Germanic, all Germanic languages have the combination "KR . NG/NK" . The vowel is nearly always " I ", rarely "kranc"( in Middle High German together with "krinc"). Various languages use a diminutive form as the principle one, as seen in German "Kringel". Proto-Germanic probably had "*KR I NK-" or "*KR I NG-"


  • Greek. We have the Greek word "khoros" in our table, but we are not certain that it is related to the other words. It says "dance in a circle", but also "group dance" and its origin might be in the "defined place" in which the dance is performed and that is not necessarily round.


  • Indo-European.


    Russian has a groups of words around a central "круг, krūg = circle, ring, round". This is clearly related to Germanic, and has remained without nasalization.


    Indo-European had, on the basis of the available information , the consonants "K R . G". The vowel remains uncertain, but may have been that "U" that is found in Russian but also in many older Germanic words. Yet the "I" may have been present as well : "*K R Ū G-" and "*K R Ĭ G-"






Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 01/11/2012 at 17.44.55