E 0527ááááááááá (TO) LEAD

The verb " to lead " is of Germanic origin .

H 0425áááááááááá áד ל ח

Concept of root : passing of life

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ד ל ח

gheled

life’s passing; world

Related English words

to lead á( one’s life )

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ד ל ח

gheled

life’s passing; world

gh . l . ád

English

to leadá (one’s life )

to lead

(one’s life)

l . d

Middle Dutch

leiden, geleiden

leiden, geleiden

to pass one’s life

l . d ,

gh . l . d

 

 

Proto-Semitic *GHELED --- *LĒD- Proto-Germanic

 

 

This comparison is a far shot and it may miss its target.

 

The range of messages of the English and Dutch words is wide, that of the Hebrew root seems to be narrow. But both have duration and continuation as a basic element. Hebrew concentrated on the ongoing human life. Dutch expresses that same concept in the expression "zijn leven leiden", as in English "to lead one’s life". But it uses this same root also for many separate aspects of human life, as shown in a paragraph below .

 

Note:
  • Hebrew "gheled" seems to be an isolated word . Its similarity with the second Dutch word , " geliden, gheliden " is strong, seems near perfect, but that is misleading. The Dutch first consonant "GH" is from a confirming or intensifying prefix, and in Hebrew we have no evidence that things are alike. Yet it is possible that this same prefix from Germanic also has existed in Hebrew .

     

    One might as well consider to this end the word " י ל ד , yalad", originally "walad" and saying "to generate", which is the fundamental action for the continuation of the species. In fact the basic form of this verb is " ל ד ה , lÚd’Ó, that stands for " to give birth ".

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. We have not much evidence, but Arabic "ghalada" says " he continued, abode", regarding the righteous in paradise. It is probable that Proto-Semitic had this Hebrew root already. But we have no further indication about an earlier root "*L D" without "GH". We note that a root "GH L D" in Hebrew says "to rust" and another one, also found in Aramaic and Arabic, " to dig".

 

Note:
  • Middle Dutch has also an older form "leden". Then, with a similar verb, "liden", it expresses also other and different concepts, such as "to let go, to suffer, to support, to be patient, to confess, to conduct". Mostly there is an element of continuation and duration felt in this root. There is some confusion when "liden" is also used for the meaning of this entry, "to lead one's life". In modern language a certain diversification between the various meanings, both in spelling and in the use of prefixes has been realized. "Liden" has become "lijden" and "leden" has disappeared.

 

Note:
  • English in "to lead", more or less like German "leiten" has a more specialized range of messages.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Germanic This root is found in many older and newer Germanic languages, from Gothic "-lidan" found in composite verbs to Old Norse that has intransitive "lida= go, die, pass" and transitive "leida = conduct, lead, bury". All languages have the initial "L" and nearly all the second consonant "D". An exception is Old Saxon that has "D" in transitive "lēdian", but "TH" in intransitive "lithan". The vowel is mostly an "Ē", sometimes "EI" as a natural development out of "Ē" and only in English exceptionally "EA" , with Old Frisian "lēda". Proto-Germanic probably had "*L Ē D-".

 

Note:
  • Indo-European. We have no indications of cognates in other groups, outside Germanic. The comparison stays thus between Hebrew/Semitic and Germanic.

 

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 26/10/2012 at 15.54.00