E 0389ááááááááá GRAIN, CORN, KERNEL

The word " grain " is, via Old French, of Latin origin .

The words " corn " and á" kernel " are áof Germanic origin .

H 0372áááááááá ן י ע ר ג

H 0372áááááááá ר ג ר ג

Concept of root : nut, grain, kernel

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ן י ע ר ג;

ר ג ר ג

gar‛in;

garger

nut, kernel;

grain, berry

Related English words

grain, corn, kernel á

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ן י ע ר ג

ר ג ר ג

gar‛in ; garger

nut, kernel; grain, berry

g . r ‛. n ;

g . rg . r < *g . ráááááááá

Greek

καρυον

karuon

nut

k . r . (n)

Latin

granum

granum

grain, nut, kernel á

g r . n

English

grain ;

corn ; kernel

grain ;

corn ; kernel

g r . n ;

c . r n ;

k . r n

Old English

corn ; ciernel

corn ;

kernel

c . r n

Old High German

korn ; kerno

kerno

kernel

k . r n

German

Kern

kern

kernel

k . r n

Dutch

graan;

grein;

-

koren;

kern

grān;

grein;

-

koren;

kern

grain ;

grain (small);

corn, grain;kernel

g r . n ;

-

-

k . r n

-

 

 

Hebrew *GAR ‛ĪN < Proto-Semitic *GAR- (‛ĪN) --- *GRĀN- Indo-European

 

 

The root of this entry is used, as shown, for a series of products from nature that have important characteristics in common .

 

It should be noted that the Latin word " granum ", the most similar perhaps to Hebrew, lies also at the origin of the words "grain" in English and "graan" in Dutch, besides of course "grain" in French . Old English did not have this Latin loanword, and German does neither .

 

Comparing with entry E 0802 (Hebrew 0371) we see a " second meaning " of what seems to be a related Hebrew root. Perhaps this second sense is not necessarily too distant, as one has to take off the outer part of nuts in order to get to the inner part . Also "shearing" leads to reducing something. But such a supposition may be just fantasy .

 

 

Note:
  • Hebrew and Greek. The final N in Hebrew "gar’īn" may be a suffix used to form a substantive. This is also indicated by the plural, that is "gar’iným". But it remains uncertain.
    Greek does as well have an N at the end of the word "karuon". This could be a suffix for the forming of a noun, but as well part of an original root . We note that Greek scholars are uncertain about the etymology of " karuon" .

     

    We can exclude the hypothesis that this Hebrew word has been borrowed from Greek "karuon" (not "karoun" as some write ) , as it is too different in sound to result from loaning and also because it means as well "stone" , a concept not covered by the Greek sisterword.

 

Note:
  • Germanic and Hebrew. Also in Germanic a final N is present. This is not a suffix that shapes a noun, as Germanic does not use that kind of suffix to that end. This is also seen from Old High German "kerno ", in which the final O is a suffix for a noun.

 

Note:
  • English presents us three words that are of the same origin, but have developed into somewhat different successors : "grain " , "corn" and "kernel" . "Kernel" a word that is a diminutive, as it was already in Old English.

 

Note:
  • Nuclear Science in German and Dutch uses this word "kern" to indicate "nuclear".

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. The root G R G R is also seen in Aramaic "ג ר ג ר א, garger'Ó = grain, berry" and has a cognate in Arabic "jirgir = grain, berry." In Arabic one often sees an initial "J" instead of the original "G", a phenomenon also present in English and in Scandinavian pronunciation.

     

    We are not sure that this doubled root "ג ר ג ר, G R G R "was already present in Proto-Semitic, but it has been derived from an older " * ג ר, G . R" that most probably was used in Proto-Semitic. There is no reason to suppose, as some do, that the other word, "gar'in " is a loanword from Greek, as the original "G R Ayin" is clearly Hebrew.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Germanic. . The basic form of "corn" in Proto-Germanic was probably "*K O R N" ( also spelled as "corn") as this is present in all languages . There are often diminutive forms that mostly have lost the "N": "*korenel > korrel" = "grain" in Dutch. The diminutives may have a different vowel, as in English "kernel" from Old English "cyrnel".

     

    The basis of "kern" can be found on that of some older versions. Old Saxon had "kerno" and Old High German had the same word. Middle Dutch showed "kerne, keerne". Old Norse had a different vowel in "kjarni", that became "kjerne" in modern language. The fact that Russian has "З е р н #1086; , zernó = corn", helps us to be happy with our choice also for Proto-Germanic of a short vowel "E": "*K Ĕ R N-".

 

Note:
  • Indo-European.

     

    Slavic An existing hypothesis of "*zjrno" is based on identical Old Church Slavonic. Russian has "зерно, zerno = corn", that has sister words in other Slavic languages. The "Z" corresponds with "G" in other Indo-European groups.

     

    Baltic. An existing hypothesis "*zjirn-" finds support in Lithuanian "zjirnis = pea", Latvian "zirnis = pea", in which the "Z" corresponds with "G". Old Prussian had syrne = corn".

     

    Celtic with Old Irish "grān" , Cymric "gronyn, pl. grawn" and Breton "greun", indicates "G R . N" but with various vowels.

     

    Indo-European probably had a form "*G R Ā N-" for "grain" and "*K Ō R N" for "corn", but may also have diversified already for "kernel, nucleus", using a "*K Ĕ R N".

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 24/12/2012 at 17.05.12