E 0229 ÐC

The Old English word " ðc " is of Germanic origin .

H 0322 ק ד

Concept of root : covering

Hebrew word


English meanings

ק ד


covering, layer

Related English words

Old English : ðaec

Comparison between European words and Hebrew




English meanings

Similarity in roots


ק ד


covering, layer

d . q




tegos; steg

roof, covering

t . g;

st . g

Old English



d . c

Middle Dutch



covering, roof

ð . k



Proto-Semitic *DOQ --- *DĀK Proto-Germanic < *TĒG- Indo-European



This entry is related to number E 0245 (Hebrew 0961). Hebrew and Dutch use the words of this entry also in the identical compositions "doq hashamaim" and "hemeldak", that stand for firmament. As seen in the previous entry, the root "D Q" has a message of "thin, fine". "Dak" in Dutch was and is used for light coverings, when one speaks of "bladerdak" for the foliage of a forest and in the past when it meant light roofs, such as thatched ones.


There remains a doubt if the two meanings of "thinness" and "covering" in Hebrew have one root or two equal roots. This does not change the fact of similarity with the European languages. The meaning " firmament " is found in Medieval Hebrew and quite possibly existed earlier without having reached us in writing.


A peculiar fact is that Proto-Germanic seems to be nearer in sound to Hebrew then older Indo-European.


  • Hebrew in modern language uses this same root in the doubled and intensive form "diqdeq" to specify "precision".


  • Proto-Semitic. In the sense of "thin, fine" this root is present in Aramaic, Ugaritic and Arabic. If one supposes that the sense of "cover, roof" referred as in Germanic to not too heavy, thin protective layers, a hypothesis can be made of a presence in Proto-Semitic of this root with both messages: "*ד ק, D Q", with a possible pronunciation "DOQ".


  • English. It is believed that also "thatch" comes from the same root, more precisely Middle English "thacchen" and Old English "ðeccan", logically related to Dutch "dekken" and German "decken", all of them meaning "to cover".


    At this point a question rises about the verb "to thatch" and the noun "thatch". Which came first ? Obviously the verb comes from a basic root for " to cover " and as the covering of houses with specific materials was very common, those received the name " thatch". This was the case in England with the reeds that were used. Then it became used also overseas for other kinds of vegetal roof coverings. And the verb " to thatch " itself became a restricted meaning of " to cover with thatch". English could do this because it had, as usual, also other roots available .


  • Proto-Germanic. Without a clear participation of modern English with a word for "roof" we look at Old English "c = roof, covering", besides English "deck".


    Among older Germanic languages the first consonant is usually "TH", but then Old High German began a change with ""thecken" , but also "dah" and "decken". Then Middle Dutch and Middle Low- and High German have an initial "D", that continues in modern use. The Scandinavian languages changed into a regular "T". The closing consonant of the root is a K-sound nearly all over, though it will be spelled also "CK" , "CC"" or "C". Exceptions are Danish "tag" and German "Dach", each according to its own taste.


    The vowel in the nouns for "roof" is "A", mostly a short one. The verbs have a short "" though it may be spelled with an "A" (Swedish "tcka", Danish "tkke"). The noun "deck" in English is like its German sister "Deck" a loanword from Middle Dutch, that had "dec" besides "dac". Presumably Proto-Germanic had the form "*D Ā K-" .


  • Indo-European languages for the meanings of "to cover" use the combination "T/D E K/G", that often is preceded by a consonant "S". The version without that consonant " S " probably is the older one and as such was present in Indo-European. The " S " may have been added in an early stage and Indo-European may already have used two forms : "*T Ē G-" and "*ST Ē G-".


    Old Indian "sthagati" = to cover and related meanings as "to hide, conceal".


    Greek "στεγος, stegos = to cover" plus related meanings, is often considered to have had a predecessor without the initial " S ": "T Ē G-".


    Latin has "tego, texi, tectum" = to cover" and related meanings. Basic element is "T Ē G-".


    Celtic uses "T E G" and "T E CH", to indicate "house ", possibly as the covered place in which to stay.


    Baltic with Lithuanian "stógas" for "roof" and "stígti = to cover with a roof" and Old Prussian "stogis = roof" as well as "steege= barn" shows cognates .


    Russian has a word стог, stog = haystack", that is seen as related to the words of this entry.






Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 24/12/2012 at 14.36.37