GR 1143          ARKEO

H 0181            ך ר ע

Concept of root : to confront and resist

Hebrew word


English meanings

ך ר ע


to confront

Related English words


Comparison between European words and Hebrew




English meanings

Similarity in roots


ך ר ע


to confront

‛a r k




to resist, push off

 a r k



Proto-Semitic *‛ARAK --- *ARK- Indo-European



This similarity seems direct and clear. Often the Hebrew root is seen as not only similar to that of entry E 0714 (Hebrew 0180), but as being one and the same root. This is based on Arabic " 'araka = he contended in battle ", which is a bit distant from the specific meaning of " to order, arrange", but is very near Greek "arkeo". Also rather nearer comes "m‛araką = battleground", a place in which troops must have been arranged in some way and attacked or defended themselves as best they could. The existence of these Arab words strengthens the possibility of a common origin between Greek and Semitic.



  • Proto-Semitic. The presence of this root in both Hebrew and in Arabic "‛raka = he contended in battle" and "m‛araką = battleground" allows the hypothesis of a similar Proto-Semitic root : " *ע ר ך Ayin R KH" .


    The pronunciation of final " K " as " KH ", seen in Hebrew , according to a common view had not started in Proto-Semitic.


  • Indo-European.


    Latin in "arcĕre" has a verb that unites two reasonably related groups of meanings. One is that of "to close (in), shut off" and the other, like Greek "arkeo": "to keep off, defend, protect". The word "arca = chest" may be related. Latin had "A R K-".


    Greek. Besides the verb "arkeo", there is " α ρ κ ο ς, arkos = protection, defense". Greek had "A R K-".


    Armenian has "argel = obstacle" and "argelum = I defend, hold off, -back", with "A R G-".


    Old Indian "argalagh = bolt" may be related.


    An Indo-European "*A R K- is quite possible for both mentioned groups of meanings. One that of to protect by "closing off, putting away" and the other that of to protect by "defending".





Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 22/01/2013 at 16.01.24