E 0284 EAHTIAN

The Old English word " eathian " is of Germanic origin .

H 0179 ך ר ע ה , ך ר ע

Concept of root : judge

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

ך ר ע ה , ך ר ע

‛arakh, he‛erikh

judge, estimate, compare

Related English words

Old English : eahtian( to judge )

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

ך ר ע ,

ך ר ע ה

‛arakh
he‛erikh

to judge, estimate, compare, value, assess

‛a r . kh

Greek

αρχη

arkh

magistrate

a r kh .

Old English

eahtian

to judge

. ah .

German, Dutch

achten

akhten

to judge, estimate

. a kh.

 

 

Proto-Semitic *‛ARAK --- *ARKHÈ Greek

 

 

The activity of the Greek magistrate is that expressed by the Hebrew verb : to judge. This indicates a similarity of sound and meaning of the roots in the two languages. Less certain is the similarity with Old English and Dutch, that do not have the R we find in Greek and Hebrew .

 

Note:
  • Old English has the noun "eaht" for " deliberation" or "consultation" . The light H-sound corresponds with the harsher CH in German and Dutch. This weakening may have been influenced by the similarity with the numeral "eight" : "eachta" . A distinction could have been created this way .

 

Note:
  • Greek. Greek scholars consider the etymology of "arhk" and the many words that are linked to it, as uncertain. One must note that the functions of "judge, magistrate" were not always neatly separated from that of "ruler", as was the case as well in Israel, where King Salomon was king and also judge.

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic We have no indications of cognates that would allow a hypothesis. But if this root is the same as that of entry E 0714 (Hebrew 0180), as is the usual opinion, there is support from Aramaic.

     

    The pronunciation of final " K " as " KH ", seen in Hebrew , according to a common view had not started in Proto-Semitic.

 

Note:
  • Indo-European . The indications from Germanic, with words that lack the consonant " R ", are not enough to venture a hypothesis for Indo-European.

 

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 22/01/2013 at 15.59.34