E 0638 ORATION, ADORE

The English word "oration" comes from Latin, "adore" from French.

H 0067 א ר ש , א ר ש ת

Concept of root: ask solemnly

Hebrew word

pronunciation

English meanings

א ר ש ;

א ר ש ;

א ר ש ת

-

*aresh ;

ares ;

areshet

-

* ask solemnly;

betroth;

request, expression

Related English words

oration, from Latin ;adore, from French

Comparison between European words and Hebrew

Languages

Words

Pronunciation

English meanings

Similarity in roots

Hebrew

א ר ש

-

א ר ש

א ר ש ת

*aresh

-

ares ;

areshet

*to ask solemnly; betroth ;

request, expression

a r . sh;

-

a r . s

a r . sh

-

Greek

αραομαι

araomai

to entreat , pray, swear

a r a

Latin

orare

orare

speak, ask solemnly, pray

o r

 

 

Proto-Semitic *ARES(H) < *AR- --- *AR- Indo-European

 

 

Apparently in Hebrew the original roots "*aresh" and "*ares" have been shaped with the addition of the third consonant, "SH" or "S". Subsequently its meaning in the other version as the verb "ares" has concentrated on that of betrothal. This can be linked to the solemnity of the speaking of this root, felt in the other languages. A confirmation can be found in the verb "*א ר ר, Aleph, Resh, Resh = to curse" , developed through doubling of the second consonant out of an earlier "*א ר , Aleph, Resh". Cursing is certainly a serious way of speaking and in old times it was often done in a very solemn way.

 

In Latin "orare" is used also for speaking in ritual formula's or in front of a court of justice. In Latin this in confirmed by the meaning of "swearing" before a court. One solemn way of speaking is certainly that of promising marriage, at least in those old times.

 

This development is confirmed by the fact that "areshet", a feminine noun shaped by adding a suffix "-et" to the root "aresh", in the Bible continued to mean an (official) request. The verb for betrothing in Modern Hebrew has become a composed one in the reciprocal form, with a praefix "hit-" : hitares".

 

It all fits rather nicely as a similarity, including that reciprocity in a modern-times betrothal.

 

 

Note:
  • Hebrew. There is some difference of opinion about the meaning of " areshet ", that in modern Hebrew is " expression". It is found in the Bible only once, in Ps 21.3, where its message " request " is absolutely clear: " you have not denied the request of his lips " .

 

Note:
  • Proto-Semitic. The Hebrew roots of this entry are related to some words in other Semitic languages. With the final "S" there is Arabic "‛arus = bridegroom" . The consonant "SH" we see in Akkadian "ereshu = to desire", " erishu = bridegroom " and also " irshitu = betrothal ".

     

    Proto-Semitic may well have had the version with "SH": "*א ר ש, Aleph, Resh, Shin. It is uncertain when the versions with "S" have originated.

 

Note:
  • Latin. The verb "orare" is considered related with the noun "os, oris (gen) = mouth". Interesting are complex verbs as "adorare = to speak to, adore" and "exorare = to pray , ask urgently"

 

Note:
  • Greek. The word " α ρ α , ara = prayer, solemn declaration, pledge, imprecation". In Homer " α ρ η , ar = prayer, entreaty, request, curse, imprecation". As its origin is indicated "arw", with a Waw that as usual has disappeared. We doubt that this is right and prefer to stick to "A R-".

 

Note:
  • Indo-European. There are words with "AR-" or "OR-" in other Indo-European languages with meanings that regard ways of serious speaking. Hittite "arija = to put questions to an oracle", and "arwai, aruwai = to worship, praise". Russian " о р а т ь, oratj = to shout". Old Indian "āryati" says "to praise". We have little possibility to define preference for one of the possibilities : "Ā R-" or "Ŏ R-" for Indo-European.

 

 

 

 

 
Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 21/12/2012 at 15.17.48